Devops may be one of the haziest terms in software development, but most of us agree that five activities make devops what it is: continuous integration, continuous delivery, cloud infrastructure, test automation, and configuration management. If you do these five things, you do devops. Clearly, all five are important to get right, but all too easy to get wrong. In particular, continuous integration and continuous delivery (CI/CD) may be the most difficult devops moves to master.

Continuous integration (CI) is a process in which developers and testers collaboratively validate new code. Traditionally, developers wrote code and integrated it once a month for testing. That was inefficient—a mistake in code from four weeks ago could force the developers to revise code written one week ago. To overcome that problem, CI depends on automation to integrate and test code continuously. Scrum teams using CI commit code daily at the very least, while a majority of them commit code for every change introduced.

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